Transition in focus: EM debt and the path to net zero
Global climate goals require new approaches to capital allocation in EM debt.
Nov 23, 2021
Hear from Co-Head of Emerging Market Fixed Income Werner Gey van Pittius how a less noisy global backdrop should allow the positive attributes of EM debt to shine through.
EM debt markets have been incredibly volatile in recent months, fuelled by a combination of fears around inflation and concerns over COVID-related lockdowns/supply-chain disruption. In 2022, we expect each of these drivers to wane, which could create a smoother market backdrop.
The vaccination rates in EM have really picked up pace, especially in Asia, allowing economies to reopen and restoring supply-chain integrity. All else being equal, we think inflation should moderate and growth should return in most markets in 2022. Coupled with the compelling current valuations in EM debt, we think this points to a bright outlook for the asset class from a risk-adjusted return perspective.
Globally, market participants are getting better at pricing in risks associated with rising inflation. As for EM, we see an interesting opportunity arising from much more aggressive monetary policy than that seen in developed markets. In EM, central banks have acted faster in hiking rates. In some cases, we think markets are now pricing in more EM rate hikes than are likely to be needed – in effect, overestimating inflation risks. Moreover, the gap between EM and DM forward policy rate expectations is at historical highs, both in nominal and real (inflation-adjusted) terms. The result is that EM bond yields (and, therefore, prices) are starting to look really attractive.
Aside from the proactive/orthodox monetary policy mentioned above, we think the relative fiscal prudence of many emerging markets will also move onto investors’ radars in 2022.
Developed markets have enjoyed much greater freedom than emerging markets when it comes to increasing borrowing and spending in response to the pandemic. In effect, EMs are on a much shorter leash and forced to be relatively prudent – something that markets have not given them full credit for. Fiscally, many EMs are now in better shape than western economies and we think this DM vs. EM disparity will become more apparent to the investment community in 2022.
We currently describe ourselves as having ‘aggressively neutral’ top-down positioning in our EM sovereign debt strategies: we certainly have risk on the table and find current valuations very compelling, but we are waiting for the right conditions to take a more risk-on stance.
We find currencies, real effective exchange rates and bond yields to be at very attractive levels. Yet with US Treasury yields pushing higher, it is a bit too soon to put more risk on the table. We are looking for a more stable dollar and Treasury market before we move to more aggressive top-down positioning.
The pandemic has increased dispersion among an already diverse opportunity set, creating plenty of opportunities for active managers. Among the relative-value trades we like at the moment is the Russian ruble vs. the Colombian peso. Political risk in the former accounts for some of its risk premium but Russia has a strong balance of payments position, and the high oil and gas prices are working very well for it. In contrast, Colombia, also an oil exporter, is seeing a fall in oil production and a current account deficit – a situation completely at odds with what we would expect for an oil exporter at the moment.
Looking through a different lens, we favour markets that are poised to benefit from re-opening over those that are lagging on COVID vaccinations. We see Singapore and Indonesia as falling into the former category, while Thailand and Philippines are struggling on tourism and vaccinations respectively and this is likely to hold back a recovery in their asset prices.
Emerging market (inc. China): These markets carry a higher risk of financial loss than more developed markets as they may have less developed legal, political, economic or other systems
All investments carry the risk of capital loss. The value of investments, and any income generated from them, can fall as well as rise and will be affected by changes in interest rates, currency fluctuations, general market conditions and other political, social and economic developments, as well as by specific matters relating to the assets in which the investment strategy invests.
Environmental, social or governance related risk events or factors, if they occur, could cause a negative impact on the value of investments.
With Western central-bank policy normalising, economic growth rates diverging and global trade still readjusting to life after lockdown, investors have a complex environment to navigate in 2022.
Ninety One’s portfolio managers assess the outlook across their asset classes and regions.
Our team also takes a deep dive into the outlook for emerging markets, as well as into how sustainability will drive investment outcomes next year and beyond.